October 22, 1797, 14 years after the sky was first raised by a balloon, the famous balloonist Andre Jacques Garnerin a historic first jump with a parachute from an aircraft (not a tower or roof).
Garner, rising to a height of 680 meters above the Parc Monceau Paris together with his brother, at some point ordered to cut the rope holding the gondola under the canvas-covered 8-meter umbrella.
And then, clutching the handle of "umbrella", went into free fall, accompanied by thousands of admiring glances of the crowd.
This art, he taught his niece Eliza Garner, which made its first jump from the balloon 8 April 1814 and entered history as the first female parachutist
Frenchmen Jacques Garner and friends on the prisoner attempted to use a parachute, in practice, while in captivity at the Austrians. Garner was caught during cooking, but my friends made from a sheet, a kind of parachute and descended on it from the wall of the fortress, broke his leg and was caught.Later Garnerin became the first successful parachute tester.
Parachute Andre Jacques Garnerin represents a design of white silk, in the form of an umbrella with a diameter of about 8 meters. The parachute attached to a balloon balloon and parachute sling was attached to a basket
Parachute landing was carried out Garnerenom October 22, 1797 in Paris with the 1,000-meter height. After rising to km altitude, Garner cut the rope connecting the parachute to the balloon, balloon with hydrogen disappeared into the clouds and Garnerin gradually sank into a basket under the canopy, in front of a delighted the French public.This chute was not opening and the average fluctuated from side to side.
Garnerin subsequently upgraded the parachute, making a hole at the top, and put in a closed canopy horizontal wheel of light bars, suspended by 3 / 4 of its vertices so that was slightly opened the bottom edge of the parachute, which facilitated its dehiscence. Since the parachute design remains virtually unchanged.This type of parachute is the closest to the modern, the most widespread type of umbrella.Subsequently Garnerin with his brother, in order to earn money, made a record jump from high altitudes around the world, including in 1802 in England, was made the record jump from a height of 2,440 m. In 1803, a similar jump has been demonstrated in Russia .
Eliza Garner, niece of Jacques Garner, in 1922 became the first female parachutist. Her first parachute jump from a balloon was performed under the guidance of her uncle, 8 April 1814.Twenty-eighth jump Eliza has also been significant. In 1821, Eliza became the first woman carried out the parachute jump from a balloon over the sea.Driving, she continued to float through life-belt, made specifically for this purpose by her father.All she has made about 60 parachute jumps, each of which was successful.Together with Garnerenom, Eliza made leaps in St. Petersburg and Moscow.
In the XIX century. became very popular jumping with a parachute from a balloon.Prior to that, the first living creatures spustivshimsya similar way to the balloon, were pets.In 1791 the aeronaut Jean Pierre Blanchard rose over the Varna and dropped by parachute dog.Seeing the result, in 1793 he ventured to make the jump.The attempt was not entirely successful - aeronaut broke his leg.